Many medical breakthroughs have been a result of animal research, and animals have been used in experiments since Aristotle. Here I’m talking about how far could the world organizations to do something positive through time, the welfare of the use of animals has come into focus, and some legislators have been made to prevent cruelty and unnecessary acts. Several organizations stood up for agreeing on an embargo for biosciences on animal testing, and many animal acts and legislation are based on this principle.
Even though legislation is constantly refined there are still many loopholes. Since several million animals are under threat, New technology has led to alternative and more humane methods like use of cell cultures and imaging.
The future of lab Mice and rats in the medical research Space
Since 1959, The principle of the three Rs, the welfare of that animal used for testing has come into action & more focus. In the last 30 years, we have seen a decline in the use of animals in research, and in countries like Great Britain and Norway, the number of research animals has been halved.
With the new and improving technology the future of research animals looks better, and many countries grant big sums of money to find alternative research methods preventing the ongoing harm applied to lab animals. In 1992 the European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods was set up by the EU, and they contributed about 80 million Norwegian Krone, each year to find alternative methods to animal research to avoid the resulted animal testing cons. There are also considerable amounts of money donated by humanitarian organizations each year.
Developing alternative methods
Many researchers require a life organism response to test the result/outcome of using certain vaccines or medication, allergy tests, or physiological hyper/hypotrophy. The number of animals used in medical research has been greatly reduced. However, there is still much work to do in the field of animal research.
The interest in different aspects of medical science has varied over time. An increase in interest in cell- and molecular biology resulted in a decrease in interest in animal tests. Now that medical science has obtained more knowledge about the details about the human organism, the interest in animal tests, as an intermediate, has once again grown.
These fluctuations have resulted in a failing knowledge about animals, because more scientists are specialists and not generalists. As a result of these changes in scientific trends with more specialists, there is a need to close cooperation between grouping of scientists like molecular biologists and veterinarians.
Recently vaccine researchers have been working on testing the cell instead of testing the animals to avoid the ethical concerns on lab testing cons, however, this technique has shown a considerable development to produce vaccines, antibiotics, and medications. This technique has given dramatic changes in the use of monkeys in polio vaccine production in the Netherlands. What used to be 5000 monkeys annually has been reduced to the cell cultures of only 10 monkeys, and these ten monkeys produce enough polio vaccine to supply the whole country. The usefulness of cell-cultures will increase as our knowledge about body cells improves.
Although animal lab testing has shown a great positive impact for humanity testing medicines and developing vaccines which is counted as animal testing advantage Statistics have come to be an important tool when testing vaccines. A vaccine is only considered effective if at least 80% of the vaccinated animals survive after being exposed to a particular disease.
However, the disease must also kill 80% of the control group not protected by the vaccine. At the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands, A Swedish Molecular Biology Scientist has developed a method to test diphtheria and tetanus vaccines that only requires measuring the level of antibodies in an animal. This method does not only reduces the suffering of the animals, but it halves the number of animals used. It is also possible to use statistical techniques and patient data to understand how a disease spreads, without using animals.